Ancient Persia Outline


Thesis: The Persians' unique geography, many strong and major historical figures, and amazing military has had a very large impact on modern society and it still continues to affect us today.


I. Their geography had originally started as a part of one area, but then spread out onto other neaby areas due to the many different conquers.


A. Persia was located between the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean to the south and the Caspian Sea to the north.
B. Joined into one state with Medes, and interacted with other by conquering local areas such as Lydia and Babylonia.
C. Part of a place called the Fertile Crescent, where farming and agriculture developed.
D. Extended empire by invading local areas, bringing borders to modern-day Tajikistan, controlling Egypt and Cyprus, and continuing this movement.
E. First settled in a region that was on a plateau in southwest Iran, near the Persian Gulf.
F. Created a unique type of culture by using different elements of other settlements’ cultures.


II. Included many major historical figures that helped lead the country to success when it mattered most.

A. Had many powerful leaders and people who had a large impact on Persian life.
B. Had leaders who were great historical figures such as Cyrus the Great, Darius I, and Xerxes I.
C. Leaders accomplished somewhat impossible tasks, especially when it came to battle.


III. Had an amazing military that was almost unstoppable.

A. Had very abundant armies, including their best fighters, the Immortals.
B. Were a part of a series of battles called the Persian Wars.
C. Used a variety of different, yet powerful, weapons in battle.
D. The Greeks held a series of rebellions, which eventually led to the decline of the mighty Persians.

IV. The Persians had a very articulate culture which included additions to today’s arts, education, science, religion, and architecture.

A. At first, the Persians worshipped many gods, but, in about 570 B.C., a religious leader named Zoroaster told the Persians about the two main gods, Ahura-Mazda, who created all good things in the world, and Ahriman, who created all evil things in the world.
B. The Persians expressed their religious beliefs in works of art. The people would commonly build statues of their gods, especially Anahita, the fertility goddess and Haoma, the god of immortality
C. The Persians learned three things from age five to twenty: To ride, draw bows, and to speak the truth. They also learned the written language of cuneiform.
D. Persian homes varied according to the family’s wealth. While workers homes were basic sun dried brick, the homes of nobles were composed of blocks of limestone or bricks baked in an oven.
E. The famous scientist Nabu-rimanni made accurate predictions of lunar and solar eclipses. He also plotted the moons phases and discovered varying lengths of days throughout the year.
F. The Persians created a lasting impact on daily life, including establishing the first domestic mail system, algebra, and many fundamental contributions to mathematics, medicine, and geometry.