Anglo- Saxons By Ciara Callanan and Justin Herr

The Anglo-Saxons were the civilization that was in control of England from the 5th century A.D. to 1066 A.D. Their advanced economics, laws, and architecture, created many aspects of modern day England. The other civilizations that have lived in England have added very little to English culture compared to the Saxons. (Laing, 1) The Anglo-Saxons left their mark on the English language in grammar and gave us many English words. Their southern dialect was the main dialect for their literature specifically for writing poetic verses. (Gillingham, “Anglo-Saxons”)

The Anglo-Saxons came to England in the 5th and 6th centuries. The Anglo-Saxons were originally allies with the indigenous Britons but then the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons drove out the native Britons and banded together to form the Anglo-Saxons. (Gilingham, “Anglo-Saxons") The Anglo-Saxons had much culture, many important historical figures, a great political system, and a powerful military.

Major Historical Figures

The Anglo-Saxons had many major historical figures including kings, saints, and scholars.

Alfred the Great was the king of Wessex (and later all of England) who stopped multiple Danish invasions while he was king. Alfred was born in Wantage, Berkshire in the year 849 A.D. (Loyn, 5) At the age of four he went to see the Pope even though he was Ethelwulf’s youngest son. (Loyn, 60, Ford,27) Even at a young age he was a good scholar. (Loyn, 13) In 868 A.D. he married Ealhswith and in 871 A.D. Alfred became king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex. (60) After keeping the Danish invaders from completely taking over Wessex for some time Alfred decided to pay the Danes not to attack. He paid them for five years and used this time to focus on building a strong defense against the Danes. (20) In 876 A.D. Alfred took many important Danes hostage and then forced the Danes to agree to his terms for their return. He did this again in 877 A.D. (22-23) As part of his 877 A.D. terms the Danish invaders to leave Wessex and return to Mercia but then in the winter of 878 A.D. the Danes returned and besieged Alfred’s castle. (23) Alfred then fled his castle and was very poor during this time. (24) In the spring of 878 A.D. Alfred went to the naturally protected marsh at Athelney and built a fortress there which he used to wage against the Danes. In May of 878 A.D. Alfred attacked and defeated Danes. After Alfred’s victory he imposed very strict terms on the Danes. (25) Throughout the 880’s A.D. to 892 A.D. Alfred created a strong naval defense against which he used to stop the Danish Vikings raids. (28) After the Danish invasion Alfred had doubled the size of Wessex and was the only surviving Anglo-Saxon with ancient royal blood. (29) Alfred Died on October 26, 899A.D.

Bede the Venerable is most famous for publishing the Ecclesiastical History of England which tells the origins of the Anglo-Saxons. Bede was born around 673 A.D. in the monastery of Jarrow. (Laing, 104) All of Bede's writings come from Jarrow. He published the Ecclesiastical History of England in 731 A.D. In the Ecclesiastical History of England Bede explained the origins of the Anglo-Saxons fifth century invasion. (23) He also explained the sixth, seventh, and early eighth centuries in the Ecclesiastical History of England. (90) 2,000 years after the Anglo Saxons took over the Romans he wrote, " They came from three very powerful nations of Germany, namely the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes. From the Jtes are descended the people of Kent and the Isle of Wight an also those in the province of the West Saxons, who are to this day called the Jutes, situated oppostie the Isle of Wight. Form the Saxons are descended the East Saxons, the South Saxons, and the West Saxons. From the Angles are descende the East Angles, the Middle Angles,the Mercians, and all the race of Northumbria." (Quennell,121)

Canute Sweynson was the first Danish king of the Anglo-Saxons and had created a small empire. Canute was the son of Svein Forkbeard and was born somewhere in between 995 and 998. (Gardiner, 175, "Canute I the Great", 266) Canute (also known as Cnut) was king of all of England from 1016 to 1035 A.D. (Laing, 136) He became king in November of 1016. (139) In 1017 A.D. he married his brother's widow. In 1019 A.D. he bacame king of Denmark and 1028 A.D. he became king of Norway. (140) He ruled England and Denmark till his death in 1035 but Canute ruled Norway for less than one year. ("Canute I the Great", 266) Canute first came to power in England in 1014 A.D. but was then driven out of England by Ethelred. In 1015 A.D. he invaded England. By May of 1016 three quarters of England were under Canute's control and in the Summer of 1016 he took over London. On October 18, 1016 Canute and the official King of England, Edmund made a peace treaty which is now known as the "Compact of Olney" which split England in to two parts and made them make each other their heirs. On November 30, 1016 King Edmund died leaving Canute as the sole king of England. (267) When he became king he kept the existing social system but he incorporated the Danish nobles into it. (268) Canute's reign was basically an attempt to build a vast empire in Europe. (Gardinern , 175) During his nineteen year reign of England, England was peaceful but Scandinavia was not. (175) During 1025 A.D. to 1028 A.D. alone he had to suppress many Scandinavian rebellions. ("Canute the Great', 286, 269) Even though he had two wives according to Gardiner and Wenborn during his reign "He Became an ostentatious Christian, visiting Rome at least once and making extravagant benefactions to the Chruch". (Gardiner, 175)

Offa was a Mercian king who ruled for eighty years. (Laing, 94,193) Offa was a friend of Pope Hadrian and he protected Christianity. (Campbell, 106) Even though Offa was defensive of Christianity he was still a very ruthless king. (115) During his reign he instituted a major coinage reform which popularized the penny and caused coins to be made of gold. (Laing, 124, Campbell, 63) Offa died in the 796 A.D. (Laing, 94)

Edgar ruled for only three years yet he instituted many important reforms. Edgar was born somewhere around 943 A.D. (Campbell, 160) Edgar was king of Angles. (160) He became king at age twenty-nine and ruled from 973-975. (Campbell, 188, Laing, 146-147) During his reign he instituted an advanced economics system which also reformed Anglo-Saxon coinage. (Laing, 146, 157) Edgar also reformed the church. (Campbell, 181-189)

Edward the Confessor ruled all of England and became a saint because he was very religious. He was born in Normandy, France around 1002 and was the youngest son of Ethelred the Unready. (Rosenthal, "Edward the Confessor", Batt, Encyclopedia of World Biography, "Edward the Confessor", 218) In 1040, his brother became king. His brother died 2 years later, in 1042, and Edward became the king. When the people of Dover attacked some of Edward's Norman friends, Edward ordered thhe Earl of Wessex to punish his people. Instead of listening, Godwin, the Earl of Wessex formed an army against him. When they attacked, Edward was forced to send advisors back home and gave Godwin back his land. Godwin then became the most powerul man in England. (Batt) After 1053 he didn't exercise much of his power but instead became very religious. (Rosenthal, "Edward the Confessor", Encyclopedia of World Biography, "Edward the Confessor", 219) Edward then built the church that later became Westminster Abbey. (Rosenthal, "Edward the Confessor") Since Edward had no heir when he died, around January 5, 1066 A.D., Godwin's son Harold became king. (Rosenthal, "Edward the Confessor", Encyclopedia of World Biography, "Edward the Confessor", 219)

Harold II was the last Saxon king and ruled for less than one year before William the Conqueror invaded. Harold was born in 1022 A.D. He was shipped wrecked near France and Harold then meet William Duke of Normandy- after he conquered England he became known as William the Conquer- who made Harold promise the English throne to him. In 1066 when Edward the confessor died Harold was elected king as Harold II by the Anglo-Saxon nobles. When Harold got the throne the Normans invaded and later killed Harold on October 14,1066 during the Battle of Hastings. (Rosenthal, "Harold II")

Edward the Elder was Alfred’s son and successor, and he killed many of the Danes that had taken residence in England. He was born in 871 as the eldest son of Alfred the Great. At age 22 he married a woman named Egwina. He had 3 to 4 children with her. In 899, his father, Alfred, died. He married a second time and had 8 children with the second unknown wife. In 924, he was forced to lead an army north to put down a Cambro Mercin rebellion against Cheshire. He died July 17, 924. (Ford)

Eadred was the king of England from 946 to 955, and he completed the assimilation of the land in England controlled by the Danes and the land in England controlled by the Anglo-Saxons. In 1952 Eadred became king of York. In 954- a year before his death- he completed the assimilation of the Danes and the Anglo-Saxons. Eadred also advanced Ethelwold's and St.Dustan's careers and assisted the Tenth-Century Reform. (Gardiner, 254)

Edmund was the son of Edward the Elder, and continued the process of taking English land back from the Danes that his father had started and Eadred had ended. He was born in 921 as the Eldest son of Edward the Elder. At age 16, he fought with his brother, Aethelstan. He became the king in 937. While in reign he married twice. First he married St. Aelfgith, and when she died maried Ethelflaed. He had two sons, Edwig All Fair and Edgar the Peacemaker. (Ford) During his reign he issued many law codes and helped King Louis IV in his wars against France. (Gardiner, 268) He then died in 946 attempting to protect his steward from an outlaw. (Gardiner, 268-269, Ford)

Ethelred II (also known as Ethelred the Unready) had become king at the age of twelve and under his rule the Danes took much English land. Ethelred was born in 966 A.D. and became king in 978 A.D. In an attempt to stop the Normans from invading, Ethelred married a Norman princess named Emma in 1002 A.D., and he also built a large fleet to keep away invaders. Despite these things in 1009 A.D. Svein Forkbeard's and Thorkell the Tall's armies invaded. When Ethelred died in 1002 he had almost no kingdom left. (Gardiner, 292)

Alcuin was an Anglo-Saxon scholar who helped revive learning in early medieval England. Besides just be a scholar he was also a teacher and a writer. Alcuin was born in 735 A.D. He studied in York, which at the time was the center of English learning. In 782 A.D. he became Charlemagne's main advisor. Alcuin helped the Carolingian Renaissance with his knowledge of previous English learning achievements. He also helped make multiple educational reforms. ("Alcuin")

St. Dunstan was the Bishop of Worchester and the Archbishop of Canterbury. He was born in Baltonsborough, Somerset in 909. When he was 34, in 943, he had to take holy orders. Some time while he was workng he got a skin disease and it is now believed to be leprosy. He built himself a cell next to Abbey Church. He lived a simple life of manual labour and devotion. He had a great skill in metalworking. He made bells and vessels. He then died May 19, 988. (Britainexpress.com)

St. Cuthbert was known as the “Wonder- Worker of England”. When he was younger he supposedly had very poor parents. For a living he tended to sheep on hills above the Abbey when older. He also spent several years of his life as a soldier. When he was sixteen years old, he saw a vision of the soul of St. Aidan being carried to heaven by angels. He became a hermit in the year of 676. Not much later he was made the Bishop fo Lindistane. His Consecration was in York on Easter in 685. He died two years later, in 687, on March 20.( britainexpress.com)

Culture

Religion

The Anglo- Saxons were a very religious civilization. Much of their daily life revolved around their churches or monasteries. The earliest Anglo- Saxons were pagans, or worshipping many gods. (Coote, pg 26) Some of the days of the week now are named after some of their pagan gods. (Crawford, 155) The day Tuesday is from the god of war, Tiw, and the day Wednesday is from the god of wisdom, Woden. (155,156) Thursday is from the god of thunder, Thor or Thunor, and Friday is from the goddess of fertility, Frig/Freya/Frey. (155,156) The area around where the Angles lived in England mostly cremated their dead where as in the Saxon areas of England inhumation (or burial in a grave) was popular. (Laing, 76,80) The ashes were held in special jars. (76) The graves were sometimes in barrows or mounds and held personal items (such weapons or jewelry) and the dead. (80, 84) In the Saxon areas women and animals were sometimes killed to be buried with men. (81)

In 597, Saint Augustine, but he was not a saint at the time for he was made a saint after his death in 605, was sent to England by Pope Gregory I to convert the Anglo- Saxons to Christianity. (Coote, 31) They accepted Christianity quickly during the last years of the sixth century and throughout the seven, but they kept a lot of their old culture. (Greenblatt, 292, Laing, 89) Christianity caused Anglo-Saxon history to be put into writing by monks and caused the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to grow and new kingdoms to form. (Laing, 90,91) Along with the religion of Christianity, they had a pre- Christian burial. There were two main types of pre- Christian burials: cremation and inhumation. Cremation was when a fully clothed body was burned, the ashes then dumped into and urn or vase, and the buried underground. Inhumation was when a fully clothed body with belongings were placed in a single grave then buried. Your social status usually decided how you would be buried. Mounds or posts were sometimes placed over a grave, like a tombstone, to remember that person. When inhumation happened, all the belongings that were going in the grave with the person were shown to everyone in town to prevent grave robbing. ( Crawford,160-162)

The Arts

The Anglo-Saxon civilization had much art which changed throughout the centuries and had some literature which was mostly poetry. During the pagan times of the Anglo-Saxon civilization the Anglo-Saxons were excellent metalworkers and jewelry makers. (Laing, 57, 58) Brooches were the most important kind of jewelry to the pagan (or early) Anglo-Saxons. (57) Most of the designs were mythological. (63) Originally the designs consisted of sea creatures but later the sea creatures were replaced with quadrupeds. (63-64) From 480 A.D. to 500 A.D. square headed brooches were imported into England. (64-65) During the sixth century the Anglo-Saxons made simple disc brooches but they also made advanced bracteates (which are round pendants). (69, 65-66) During the seventh century a new design, where animals were shown biting their own bodies. (73)

When the Anglo-Saxons became Christian it affected most of their art. It caused them to start painting and sculpting. Most Anglo-Saxon paintings were gospel and other religious books. (104, 106) Anglo-Saxon sculpture consisted of mostly stone crosses and had much Mediterranean influence. (112) Metalworking was the one art that remained basically untouched by Christianity. The only way that Christianity really affected metalworking is that the cross became a very popular motif. (104) During this time there also was a shortage of gold during this period so metalworkers used silver and bronze instead. (114-115) Near the end of the Anglo-Saxon civilization their art combined with the Danish. (168) The main style for this period was the jellinge style, which consisted of double outlined animals. (177) This style was most distinct in Wessex. (174)


The Anglo-Saxons' literature consisted mostly of poetry. The most famous (but not most important) piece of Anglo-Saxon literature is the epic poem Beowulf. (49) The most important piece of Anglo-Saxon literature is probably the Chronicle. The Chronicle is important because it is the main source for the history of England from 800 A.D. to 1066 A.D. It is written in English prose and it was started by Alfred the Great after the Danish invasion. It consist of short, yearly descriptions of the major events of the year. Most entries are only one line long and many years don't have entries. The first important entry is about the year 449 A.D. and the last is the entry for 1154 A.D. (Chamberlain)

Education

Most of the schools were linked to the monastries. They were an exclusive responsibility of the church. They were usually in the priest or bishop's home. The children were taught by those in holy orders, usually monks. The students were refered to as the schola. These schools were held to educate future priests and monks. Their basic education was grammer and rhetoric. They also had places called Double Houses. They were where men and women were taught in the same place. Most of the time men and women were taught seperatly because men grow up to do different things than woman, as woman grow up to do different things than men. People called Abbesses taught woman. Also, nuns taught women. Nuns followed the same curriculum as monks, which was religious in content and functional.

They were taught in two alphabets. These were Roman and Runic. Every day they had to say prayers. The thing that most people wrote on were wax tablets instead of parchment. Only really rich people had parchment. This was simply because it cost too much and only richer people could by it. Writing was not always part of the Anglo- Saxon curriculum. They sung their work. At song schools, children were taught by singing the alphabet and their prayers and psalms, and they also read Latin. They normally wouldn't read. though. Education was very linked to the church. (utoronto.ca)

Clothing
Most of Anglo- Saxon clothing was mainly made out of natural materials.Wool and linen were made ffrom fray plant. They were the most common material for clothing. The clothing in Anglo- Saxon times were fairly simple. They were plain and didn't normally have patterns. Women wore tunics with a hood- like mantle. When it was cold out. They usually wore jewelery. Richer woman could afford jewelery made out of gold and silver. Brooches and clasps usually held together garments. Bucles were usually found on straps and belts. Poorer women could only afford jewelry made out of cheap metals and materials. Woman in these times were usually plain but fashionable. ( Coote 18, 19, 20) Sometimes instead of wearing tunics, women wore long and tubular sleeveless dresses. They wore two brooches at shoulders
with a belt at the waist. Bags and pouches were attached to the waist by the belt.

Men's clothing was some- what different than the women's. They did not really focus on what the wore. Their social identity was in their weapons not their clothes where as the women's identity was in how much jewelery you can afford and how expnsive it was. Men had pins and belts to hold their clothing together. (Crawford, 93,116) Their hairstyles were linked to their social status. Royalty had long hair. Warriors had long flowing hair with a very thin mustache. They used combs. (121-124)

Children usually carried iron knives, On their clothing they had iron buckles. Children wore iron alot. They decorated their clothing with beads. When they were buried, they were never buried with brooches, shoes, of neclaces. They were sometimes buried naked. Clothing was not as important to children as it was for adults. In the winter the wore woolen and linen clothing to keep warm. They also wore leather to repel the snow, sleet, and rain.(121,122)

All people used combs. Children, men, and woman usually had different combs. Children had minature bone combs. Women had larger bones in their combs. Each comb had a carrying case, of course only if you can afford one. Many people could not afford carrying cases and some couldn't afford a simple comb. High status men treasured their combs and they were buried with their combs. They used them to get knots out of their hair. They also used combs to get rid of nits and lice.(121-124)

Architecture
The architecture in Anglo- Saxon times were not very complex. They had many materials to make their buildings and homes. They used tile, stone, brick, and glass in the early fourth century. In the late fifth century, they used wood, thatch, earth, and turf. Saxon building were sometimes sunken- featured structures. These had a pit with two to six pole holes supporting the tent shaped roof. Also some buildings and homes were made like cabins with timber framed structures. (53)

Churches were found frequently in used-to-be Saxon land. They contained bits and pieces of other buildings. They were mainly made of stone. There were two styles of church designs: Roman and Celtic. The Roman model had chambers on either side if the aisle. The Celtic monasitc was simple with tall naves. Unlike the Roman model, there were no side chambers. They had rectangular chanels. Both styles had small, narrow , deep set windows with a rounded or triangular heads. The towers in churches were delt with a treat of attack with lookout posts. These were a refuge in time of attack. The churches normally had carved crosses on the side of churches. (britainexpress.com)

Saxon villages had many buildings in them. The buildings were made out of wood. Most houses had small outhouses. They had several working sheds and barns. Cows had seperate sheds from other animals. Each village had somewhere between fiffteen and forty houses. In each house there was a fire in the center and a hole in the roof to let out the smoke. There were several types of buildings. One type is a longhouse. These had steeply pitched roofs that ranged from fourty- two to eighty- seven feet tall. Also there were outhouses. These were used to sleep in. And there were weaving sheds. This is were weaving women worked and slept. (Quennell, 140-143) The style of architecture used in most Anglo-Saxon buildings is that the buildings were solid, had round arches, and narrow proportions.

Political System

Social Classes

The Anglo- Saxons had two main social classes. One of the classes was the nobles. If you were part of the nobles, you became one at birth. When you were a noble you had to attend witenagemot, keep peace, and serve as a soldier for the king when the country went to war. As for clothing, a man would wear silk of fur pants and a silk or fur tunic. A woman would wear a tunic or long cloak held together by a brooch at shoulders and/or waist. A noble’s house would usually have a long hall with walls covered in tapestries. In eating or seating area there would be tables and benches. There were also separate bedrooms. The second social class was the peasants. The peasants lived in small villages and worked for the nobles in their fields. With all of the crops they grew, they had to give a portion of it to the nobles they worked for and they then kept the rest for themselves. When working, peasants shared tools, and when cooking they shared an oven. Their homes were one room huts made out of plaster. Usually, the houses had a fireplace in the center of the house and they had a straw roof to let the smoke out. If a family had animals, they shared the house with them. They didn’t get a barn or another edifice to house their animals. (Greenblatt, 295, 296)

Government

The Anglo- Saxon civilization had a main government, but most of the towns had a mayor-type person, called a sheriff, and their own rules. Each town had a local government. These were districts called shires. Each shire was run by a sheriff, who was chosen by the king. The sheriff’s job was to collect money, enforce the law, call out soldiers for war, and report to the king when anything happened. Every so often the king would move around. If the king was in your town, you not only had to follow the rules of the town but of the whole country. While the king was in your town, if you committed a crime, you got the king’s punishment not your local government’s punishment. This was usually more severe or hurt more.

Outside of the shires, there was one central king. The council elected a king. Servants and advisors handled the king’s needs and wishes. (Greenblatt, 295) The king was supported by his hops, law codes, palaces, mints, and flourishing international lines. The main government had ranks. Below the king were the ealdormen. At the same level of the ealdormen were the reeves and the thanes. Below the ealdormen, the reeves, and the thanes were the ceorls. The ceorls were the lowest rank of freemen. They were farmers. They employed slaves and laborers.


Laws

The Anglo- Saxons had laws or rules in each town. The king also had central laws for the whole country. Each kingdom had a Witenagemot. After King Egbert, all of England had one assembly instead of each kingdom having their own. The Witenagemot, or the meeting of the wise men, was an assembly of councilors that met to advise the king of judicial and administrative matters. They also deliberated on new laws and made treaties with other groups or countries. They also served as the supreme court of justice, authorized the levying of taxation, and the granting of new land to nobles. They also raised the military forces of the Anglo- Saxons. (“Witenagemot”)

The West Saxon Lage was a group of laws set by several Anglo- Saxon rulers. It was used to govern their kingdoms. Ine was the first ruler to issue this code of law. It was the municipal law for much of England before the Norman Conquest in 1066 which ended the Anglo- Saxon civilization.


Military

Armies

During Anglo-Saxon times the king's army consisted of married nobles and all freemen, and was the kings personal guard. (Campbell, 59) Alfred the Great created a major reform of the Anglo-Saxon army and navy. For the navy he invented a sixty oared vessel. For the army he made it so that half his army was in battle and half was at home. (150) The early Anglo-Saxon society was a warrior based society. (Laing, 50) The Pagan Saxon war bands contained from 100-225 men. (56) In their society the boar was a symbol of power so warrior helmets were embellished with boars. (52)

Weapons and Armor

During early Anglo-Saxon times rich warriors had a helmet, a sword, a shield, and very ornate body armor. (Laing, 50) During the sixth century nobles would occasionally use spears and knifes. (Campbell, 25) Normal warriors would only have a weapon, usually a sword,and a shield. (Laing, 53) During the seven century nobles started to get pattern welded swords. Pattern welded swords could cut though chain mail. (Campbell, 55) During later Anglo-Saxon times spears, throwing axes, and the scramasax (a single edged thrusting sword) became the most common weapons. A rarer but more valuable weapon would be a double edged cutting sword. These swords could be up to ninety centimeters long, and would be a warrior's most important possession. (Laing, 54)

Battles

One of the most important battles in Anglo-Saxon times was the Battle of Ashdown. The Anglo-Saxons were fighting against the Danes and were lead by Ethelred who was the king of Wessex at the time. (Loyn, 20) The Anglo-Saxons and the Danes met on the plain of Ashdown in 871 A.D. and began the battle. ("Ashdown, Battle of') Ethelred attacked one of the two Danish divisions and his brother Alfred (the Great) attacked the other. According to Loyn "Although the Danes had the advantage of higher ground, the sheer audacity and impetus of the West Saxons carried them though." (Loyn, 20) The Anglo-Saxons won but it was a pyrrhic victory for them even though they killed one Danish king and five Danish earls were killed. (Loyn, 20,
"Ashdown, Battle of") Shortly after the battle, the remains of the Anglo-Saxon army was defeated and Ethelred was killed leaving Alfred as king of Wessex.

Another important in Anglo-Saxon history is the Midwinter attack at Chippenham. This battle happened in early January of 878 A.D. The Anglo-Saxons were led by Odda of Devon. The Danes were led by Ubba. The Danes had surprised the Anglo-Saxons because the Anglo-Saxons were celebrating and were not prepared for battle. The battle began at Countisbury hill. Even though the Danes had the element of surprise the Danes lost and Ubba was killed.

Another very important battle in 878 A.D. is the Battle of Edington. Before the battle the Danes had conquered most of England, and Alfred the Great had to go because of the amount of land they had. In 878 A.D. Alfred came out of hiding and marched his troops to the Danes. They met and fought at Edington. The Danes lost the battle. As part of the post battle terms the Danes left Wessex in the fall of 878 A.D.

Decline

One of the most important battles in the history of the United Kingdom and possible the world is the Battle of Hastings. The Normans invaded England in an attempt to conquer the Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxons were led by their king, Harold II, and the Normans were led by Duke William of Normandy (who later became known William the Conqueror). First William invaded northern England but he was stopped by Harold II. After William was stopped he and his men sailed around to the bottom of England. Harold's already tired men had to march to meet the Normans and stop them from conquering all of southern England. The Anglo-Saxons met the Normans near Hastings in 1066 A.D. (Rosenthal, “Hastings, Battle of”) It is a popular belief among historians that there was 7000 men on both sides of the battle. The Anglo-Saxons only used infantry in the where as the Normans used infantry, cavalry, and archers. The Normans won the battle and killed Harold II. (Campbell, 234) After the battle the Normans conquered all of the Anglo-Saxon civilization. We know about this battle from the Bayeux Tapestry. (Rosenthal, “Hastings, Battle of”)


As you have probably seen, The Anglo- Saxons had many major historical figures, lots of culture, an important political system, and a fierce army. They impacted our lives now a lot. They rulled England for many years and if it weren't for them, this world could have turned out completly different. The Angles, the Jutes, and the Saxons created a great but fierce group. They impacted our lives so much that our world is probably completely altered our lives and you probably don't even know it. All in all the Anglo Saxons were a very important part of our daily lives. They created the English language so without them we might not even be speaking or writing in English.




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